The name of hypersthene comes from the Greek words Huper (super) and Sthenos (strength), meaning that the hardness is greater than that of ordinary hornblende once mixed with it. Because of its polychrome, it is very similar to the leaf color of the plant perilla: the surface (sunny side) is green; The back (sun side) is purple and rose red;

Basic properties of hypersthene

Chemical formula: (Mg, Fe)2[Si2O6] contains impurities such as Ca, Fe2+ Ti and Mn.

Form: similar to Bronzite.

Optical property: 

Usually polychromatic:

Np=light red, Nm=light yellow, Ng=light green; 

The polychromaticity is more significant with the increase of Fe2+content (the color of hypersthene is not very strong, it is pink and light green, but the color change is noticeable). Positive protrusion.

Np=1.687~1.711,Nm=1.698~1.724; Ng=1.702~1.727,Ng-Np=0.010~0.016.

The highest dry color correlation is generally lower than Class I purplish red, but some are higher (the maximum birefringence can reach 0.020).

Orthorhombic pyroxene extinction type, but the oblique extinction section is more common than Enstatite and Bronzite. Positive ductility. Two axis (-), 2V=65 °~45 °.

Change: It is easy to change into serpentine, talc, pseudoamphibole, biotite, etc.

Occurrence: It mainly occurs in norite, gabbro norite, perilla granite, perilla granulite, perilla eclogite, perilla hornfels and some member rocks.

hypersthene beads

Some gems similar to hypersthene

Hypersthene also has two kinds of sibling stones: enstatite with high iron content and Bronzite with iron content between two.

1) Enstatite

The chemical composition of enstatite is Mg2 [Si2O6]. Fe2+can replace Mg2+in the same way and contains aluminum, titanium, Chromium, nickel, Fe3+, manganese, calcium, sodium, potassium, etc.

It belongs to the orthorhombic system and space group Pbca. a=18.223~18.235,b=8.815~8.841, C=5.169~5.187A。 Z=16. main spectral lines of the powder: 3.17 (100), 2.87 (87), 2.49 (51), 2.94 (44).

The single crystals are usually columnar or short columnar, extending parallel to the c-axis. Sometimes there are (100) simple twins and flake twins.

There are usually melted wafer structures, and banded structures are also common. The color is green, brown, yellow, gray, white or colorless. Strips are colorless.

The polychrome is green and light brown-green, but the color of brown is strong, while that of green is weak. It has glass luster, and the cleavage mask has pearl luster, which is transparent to translucent.

After being processed into an arc-shaped gem, it can show four radial light bands, which are called “Star Colorful Enstatite.”

Some Enstatites have cat’s eye effect. Absorption spectrum: there is a very obvious absorption line at 506nm in the blue-green region (including colorless varieties);

In addition to this absorption line, there is a double line in the red zone for enstatite colored by Chromium;

There are five lines for brown enstatite on both sides of the 506nm line. It is colorless under the transmitted light, with positive protrusion in the middle.

Refractive index

  • Ng: 1.665 ~ 1.677,
  • Nm: 1.659 ~ 1.672,
  • Np:1.657~1.667;
  • It is generally 1.658~1.668.

The birefringence is 0.008 ~ 0.010; generally, 0.010, and the highest dry color is light yellow of grade I.

Symmetrical extinction of cross-section, parallel extinction of cylinder and axis. Biaxial crystal, positive gloss, 2V60 °~80 °. Weak dispersion.

Cleavage {210} is complete, (210) ^ (210) is about 88 °. With {100}, {1010} splits. The fracture surface is uneven. The hardness is 5~6, generally 5.5. The density is 3.209-3.3 g/cm, generally 3.25 g/cm.

The enstatite in the crust mainly occurs in ultrabasic rocks (such as peridotite or kimberlite) and basic rocks (such as basalt) and coexists with olivine, clinopyroxene, enstatite diopside, spinel, etc. Gem grade enstatite often occurs in placer deposits.

The countries and regions producing gem-grade enstatite worldwide include Myanmar, Sri Lanka, India, Austria, Norway, Germany, the United States, Greenland, Brazil, Mexico, Tanzania, South Africa, Australia, the Pacific Canary Islands, etc.

For example, enstatite gemstones are found in Myanmar and Sri Lanka placer mines. Myanmar also produces enstatite cat’s eye;

Enstatite in Sri Lanka is green, brown-green and brown, producing gray black enstatite weighing about 10 carats.

India produces green, brown and enstatite with cat’s eye and four-star effects.

For example, the gem-grade enstatite produced in Orissa is gray or brown after being processed into an arc-shaped gem. It has a very clear cat’s eye effect, no cracks, hardness of 5.5, and weight of 40 carats.

It is mainly sold in the jewelry market in Japan, Hong Kong, etc. Austria produces brown enstatite. Tanzanian brown and green enstatite.

South Africa produces Enstatite cat’s eye, and near Kimberley, there is bright green enstatite containing Chromium. 

Cat’s eye enstatite from Lanzarote Island, Canary Islands, Pacific Ocean, exists in the form of olivine inclusions, and its olivine also meets the quality requirements for gemstones.

In addition, Mount Haz in Germany and Myanmar produce Bastite altered by enstatite. This kind of stone is actually serpentine; the block is opaque, the hardness is 3.5~4, and the density is 2.6 g/cm. It has been used to produce cambered gemstones.

China has found gem-grade enstatite in Hebei, Jilin and other places. The gem-grade enstatite from Hebei was found in the Miocene Hannuoba basalt in the Zhangjiakou area.

Its crystals are columnar or thick plates, and the grain size is about 1.5 × two × 3cm, in blue, dark blue, slightly purple halo, translucent to transparent, without cracks.

The enstatite in Jilin was found in the alkaline basalt of the Pliocene Chuandishan Formation in Jiaohe.

Its crystals are short-columnar and granular, occasionally coarse single crystals, grayish brown, light yellowish brown, glassy, and slightly transparent to translucent.

2) Bronzite

Bronzite has a chemical composition of (Mg, Fe) 2 [Si206] and often contains aluminum, calcium, manganese, Fe3+, titanium, Chromium, nickel, etc.

It belongs to the orthorhombic system and space group Pbca. ao=18.235~18.310,bo=8.841~8.931, Co=5.187~5.129A。 Z=16。

The spectral lines of the main powder crystals are similar to the hypersthene. The single crystals are usually columnar and elongated parallel to the c-axis.

Wafer structure is very common and also often has a banded structure. The crystals contain magnetite, apatite, quartz and other inclusions arranged directionally.

The color is often the characteristic bronze color, hence the name; It is grayish green, green, yellow, brown, greenish-brown, or colorless.

Stripes are colorless to light green. It has a glassy luster, but it has a semi-metallic luster similar to that of Bronzite due to more metallic mineral inclusions.

Translucent to transparent. After being processed into an arc-shaped gem, it can show six radiating light bands, which are called “Star-colorful Bronzite.”

Colorless under transmitted light or with only a very light tone. Weak polychromaticity can be seen in thick and thin films: Ng bright green, Nm brown yellow, Np light yellow. It is high and upright.

Refractive index Ng: 1.677~1.702, Nm: 1.672~1.698, and Np: 1.667~1.689. Birefringence 0.010~0.013.

The highest dry color is grade 1 yellow. Symmetrical extinction of cross-section, parallel extinction of cylinder and axis. Biaxial crystal, positive gloss,2V85°~90°;

Or negative light, 2V65 °~80 °.

The cleavage {210} is complete and its included angle is nearly 88. With {100}, {010} cleavage. The hardness is 5~6, and the density is 3.18~3.90g/cm3.

The Bronzite in the crust mainly occurs in basic and ultrabasic rocks (such as gabbro, pyroxenite, etc.). Other minerals such as granulite, crystalline schist and placer also occur.

In the world, countries producing gem grade Bronzite include India, Australia, etc.


Hypersthene is easily mixed with andalusite in polychrome, but the former is positive ductility, and the latter is negative ductility, and their occurrence and secondary changes are also different.

When oblique extinction occurs on the oblique section of hypersthene, it is easy to be mistaken for clinopyroxene. The difference is:

  • The former is polychromatic, while the latter is colorless;
  • The interference color of the former is lower, mostly lower than grade I purplish red, while the latter is higher than grade I purplish red except clinopyroxene;
  • The former is negative and the latter is positive;
  • The extinction angle of the former is small and generally does not exceed 35 °, while that of the latter is greater than 35 ° except for clinopyroxene.

Energy form of hypersthene

Hypersthene belongs to the orthorhombic system, which can heal wounds and bring peace and is very helpful to those who have suffered injuries or can not escape from the shadow of trauma.

The use of hypersthene can help us live in the present, stand between the past and the future without being confused, settle our hearts and make the right choice.

How to use hypersthene

People can wear hypersthene to help themselves strengthen the bio-magnetic energy field. It can stabilize the bio-magnetic energy field and make us firmly rooted in the land like a tree but still have a light state of consciousness.

Hypersthene has both black and transparent colorless textures, representing the power of the sky and the earth. It can make people feel secure and stable and can also adjust our level of consciousness so that we can think from a higher perspective.

When to use hypersthene

  • When you feel top heavy
  • Hope to be rooted in the earth and gain stability from the earth
  • At constant energy support
  • When you can’t face your dark side
  • When there are too many illusions

How to clean hypersthene

Purification mode

√: Fragrance, smoke, crystal hole, sound

×: Water, sea salt and sunlight can cause crystal damage


Hypersthene is usually dark black, and only the place containing trace iron elements will form a transparent state, showing a cross vision of black and transparent. Because it is wholly cleaved and easy to be broken or worn due to collision, wear it carefully.